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What is the Principle of Hematology Analyzer

The hematology analyzer is used to count blood cells, classify leucocytes, and determine haemoglobin levels. The detection principle includes two principles: the electrical and optical principles. Electrical resistance and RF conductivity are examples of electrical principles, while laser scattering and spectrophotometry are examples of optical principles. Genrui Biotech is currently going to show you the hematological analyzer.

Ⅰ. Principles of blood cell counting

1. Principle of electrical resistance: Blood cells are weak conductors. When a blood cell suspension diluted with an isotonic electrolyte solution is passed through a small pore with a stable current on both sides, the resistance in the induction zone of the pore increases due to the lower conductive nature of the cells compared to the electrolyte solution, causing a voltage change to produce a passing pulse. To get the cell count data, the pulse signal is amplified, filtered, and shaped before being delivered into the counting system. The cell volume can also be analyzed depending on the size of the pulse, producing a graphical representation of the cell volume distribution.

2. Principles of flow cytometry and light scattering blood cell testing: Individual cells are refracted, diffracted, and scattered as the sheath fluid with fluid power aggregation passes through the laser irradiated detection area, and the scattered light is received by the light detector and produces a pulse, the size of which is proportional to the size of the cells being illuminated, and the number of pulses represents the number of cells.

Ⅱ. Principles of white blood cell classification

1. The principle of leucocyte trichotomy: When different volumes of leucocytes travel through a small well, there is a substantial difference in the size of the pulses created, according to the principle of electrical resistance. he instrument divides the leucocytes into groups based on the size of the pulses. The apparatus uses the number of electron pulses higher than 35fl detected from the leucocyte counting cell as the leucocyte count after adding a haemolytic agent to the samples to lyse the red blood cells. According to the size of the pulse, leucocytes in the blood are divided into three groups: small cell group (35-90fl, mainly lymphocytes), intermediate cell group (91-160fl, including monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and naive cells), and large cell group (161-450fl, mainly neutrophils).

It is distinguished by its quickness and ease of use, which can significantly increase efficiency. This sort of instrument can be used to screen for leucocyte categorization in routine examination specimens, and positive specimens found by the instrument should be examined further microscopically. Blood smears and microscopic inspection should be performed on individuals with suspected blood diseases, even if the instrument does not reveal any abnormalities.

2. The principle of pentad classification: The progression from the electrical resistance method's trichotomous grouping to the use of a combination of techniques (laser, radiofrequency, and chemical staining) for the simultaneous detection of a single cell and a comprehensive analysis of the experimental data to produce a pentad classification of leukocytes. This method accurately classifies a large number of cells with great specificity, and it is currently widely regarded as the preferred automated blood cell classification method.

Ⅲ. Principles of hemoglobin measurement

In a triple or quintuple hematology analyzer, hemoglobin is measured spectrophotometrically. In a dilution containing a haemolytic agent, red blood cells lyse and release haemoglobin, which reacts with certain components of the haemolytic agent to generate a stable haemoglobin derivative that is colorimetric in a certain light wave range (530-550nm). Because the change of absorbance is proportional to the blood hemoglobin concentration, the hemoglobin concentration can be calculated. The above is the principle.

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