IVD Wiki from Genrui
Because of its accuracy and speed, hematology analyzers have been popularized in China, and are deeply loved and trusted by medical workers and patients. They have replaced manual counting in daily wo...Read More >
About Cardiac ArrestCardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have been diagnosed with heart disease. It can come on suddenly or in the wake of other sympto...Read More >
Molecular diagnosis is a technology to make a diagnosis of human states and diseases that uses DNA and RNA as diagnostic materials and uses molecular biology techniques to detect the presence, abnorm...Read More >
Because of its accuracy and speed, hematology analyzers have been popularized in China, and are deeply loved and trusted by medical workers and patients. They have replaced manual counting in daily wo...
About Cardiac ArrestCardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have been diagnosed with heart disease. It can come on suddenly or in the wake of other sympto...
Molecular diagnosis is a technology to make a diagnosis of human states and diseases that uses DNA and RNA as diagnostic materials and uses molecular biology techniques to detect the presence, abnorm...
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a full blood count (FBC), is a set of medical laboratory tests that provide information about the cells in a person's blood. The CBC indicates the counts of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets, the concentration of hemoglobin, and the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells). The red blood cell indices, which indicate the average size and hemoglobin content of red blood cells, are also reported, and a white blood cell differential, which counts the different types of white blood cells, may be included.
The CBC is often carried out as part of a medical assessment and can be used to monitor health or diagnose diseases. The results are interpreted by comparing them to reference ranges, which vary with sex and age. Conditions like anemia and thrombocytopenia are defined by abnormal complete blood count results. The red blood cell indices can provide information about the cause of a person's anemia such as iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency, and the results of the white blood cell differential can help to diagnose viral, bacterial and parasitic infections and blood disorders like leukemia. Not all results falling outside of the reference range require medical intervention.
The CBC is performed using basic laboratory equipment or an automated hematology analyzer, which counts cells and collects information on their size and structure. The concentration of hemoglobin is measured, and the red blood cell indices are calculated from measurements of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Manual tests can be used to independently confirm abnormal results. Approximately 10–25% of samples require a manual blood smear review, in which the blood is stained and viewed under a microscope to verify that the analyzer results are consistent with the appearance of the cells and to look for abnormalities. The hematocrit can be determined manually by centrifuging the sample and measuring the proportion of red blood cells, and in laboratories without access to automated instruments, blood cells are counted under the microscope using a hemocytometer.
In 1852, Karl Vierordt published the first procedure for performing a blood count, which involved spreading a known volume of blood on a microscope slide and counting every cell. The invention of the hemocytometer in 1874 by Louis-Charles Malassez simplified the microscopic analysis of blood cells, and in the late 19th century, Paul Ehrlich and Dmitri Leonidovich Romanowsky developed techniques for staining white and red blood cells that are still used to examine blood smears. Automated methods for measuring hemoglobin were developed in the 1920s, and Maxwell Wintrobe introduced the Wintrobe hematocrit method in 1929, which in turn allowed him to define the red blood cell indices. A landmark in the automation of blood cell counts was the Coulter principle, which was patented by Wallace H. Coulter in 1953. The Coulter principle uses electrical impedance measurements to count blood cells and determine their sizes; it is a technology that remains in use in many automated analyzers. Further research in the 1970s involved the use of optical measurements to count and identify cells, which enabled the automation of the white blood cell differential.